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Ancient Greek Olympic festivals. Greek ministry of Education Research and Religious affairs. Archived from the original on 24 September Second Greek Delectus; or, new Analecta Minora With English notes, and a copious Greek and English lexicon, etc.
Archived from the original on 15 November Etymologicum graciae linguae Gudianum et alia grammaticorum scripta e codicibus manuscriptis nunc primum edita Accedunt notae ad Aymologicion magnum ineditae E.
Archived from the original on 23 December Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 12 February Raschke 15 June Archaeology Of The Olympics: Univ of Wisconsin Press.
Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 12 August The Origins of the Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 13 May Little remains of Eratosthenes' Chronographiae , but its academic influence is clearly demonstrated here in the Roman Antiquities by Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
Ancient Time and the Beginnings of History. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, , A Summary and Research Tool" by Kotynski, p.
For the calculation of the date, see Kotynski footnote 6. There are no records of Olympic victors extant from earlier than the fifth century BC.
The Olympic Games-through the ages. Young 15 April A Brief History of the Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 3 January Retrieved 1 April The True Story of the Ancient Games.
Random House Digital, Inc. Archived from the original on 12 June Livius, Articles on Ancient History. Archived from the original on 13 February The History of the Peloponnesian War.
Translated by Richard Crawley. The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 15 November — via Google Books.
It may have differed from site to site, but it was in the range of 7. Archived from the original on 18 September Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 15 November — via Internet Archive.
The First Thousand Years". Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original on 5 January Archived from the original on 23 October Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 4 August Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 26 January Phelps has now overtaken Leonidas of Rhodes as the most decorated Olympian of this, that, and every era.
Leonidas, as every self-respecting sports fan knows, did the sprint triple in the stadion, the diaulos, and the hoplitodromos, at four Olympics in a row between and BC.
Or 2, years ago. Who was Leonidas of Rhodes? Retrieved 14 August Retrieved 16 April Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 15 November Greek athletic sports and festivals.
Hansen, Mogens Herman The Athletics of the Ancient Olympics: A Summary and Research Tool. The Olympic Games programme consists of 35 sports, 30 disciplines and events.
For example, wrestling is a Summer Olympic sport, comprising two disciplines: It is further broken down into fourteen events for men and four events for women, each representing a different weight class.
Cross-country skiing , figure skating , ice hockey , Nordic combined , ski jumping , and speed skating have been featured at every Winter Olympics programme since its inception in Current Olympic sports, like badminton , basketball , and volleyball , first appeared on the programme as demonstration sports , and were later promoted to full Olympic sports.
Some sports that were featured in earlier Games were later dropped from the programme. Olympic sports are governed by international sports federations IFs recognised by the IOC as the global supervisors of those sports.
There are 35 federations represented at the IOC. These sports are not considered Olympic sports, but they can be promoted to this status during a programme revision that occurs in the first IOC session following a celebration of the Olympic Games.
In October and November , the IOC established an Olympic Programme Commission, which was tasked with reviewing the sports on the Olympic programme and all non-Olympic recognised sports.
The goal was to apply a systematic approach to establishing the Olympic programme for each celebration of the Games.
Of the five sports recommended for inclusion only two were selected as finalists: The th IOC Session , in , limited the Summer Games programme to a maximum of 28 sports, events, and 10, athletes.
Since there was no agreement in the promotion of two other sports, the programme featured just 26 sports. The ethos of the aristocracy as exemplified in the English public school greatly influenced Pierre de Coubertin.
In this ethos, a gentleman was one who became an all-rounder, not the best at one specific thing. There was also a prevailing concept of fairness, in which practising or training was considered tantamount to cheating.
The exclusion of professionals caused several controversies throughout the history of the modern Olympics. The Olympic pentathlon and decathlon champion Jim Thorpe was stripped of his medals when it was discovered that he had played semi-professional baseball before the Olympics.
His medals were posthumously restored by the IOC in on compassionate grounds. As class structure evolved through the 20th century, the definition of the amateur athlete as an aristocratic gentleman became outdated.
Near the end of the s, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association CAHA felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams.
Avery Brundage , president of the IOC from to , was opposed to the idea of amateur and professional players competing together. Greece , Australia , France , and United Kingdom are the only countries to be represented at every Olympic Games since their inception in While countries sometimes miss an Olympics due to a lack of qualified athletes, some choose to boycott a celebration of the Games for various reasons.
There were three boycotts of the Melbourne Olympics: In and a large number of African countries threatened the IOC with a boycott to force them to ban South Africa and Rhodesia , because of their segregationist regimes.
New Zealand was also one of the African boycott targets, because its national rugby union team had toured apartheid -ruled South Africa.
The IOC conceded in the first two cases, but refused to ban New Zealand on the grounds that rugby was not an Olympic sport. Trudeau's action was widely condemned as having brought shame on Canada for having succumbed to political pressure to keep the delegation from the Republic of China ROC from competing under that name.
In and , the Cold War opponents boycotted each other's Games. The United States and sixty-five other countries boycotted the Moscow Olympics in because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
This boycott reduced the number of nations participating to 80, the lowest number since Although a boycott led by the Soviet Union depleted the field in certain sports, National Olympic Committees took part, which was a record at the time.
When the Romanian athletes entered during the opening ceremonies, they received a standing ovation from the spectators, which comprised mostly U.
The boycotting nations of the Eastern Bloc staged their own alternate event, the Friendship Games , in July and August. There had been growing calls for boycotts of Chinese goods and the Olympics in Beijing in protest of China's human rights record , and in response to Tibetan disturbances.
Ultimately, no nation supported a boycott. The Olympic Games have been used as a platform to promote political ideologies almost from its inception.
Nazi Germany wished to portray the National Socialist Party as benevolent and peace-loving when they hosted the Games , though they used the Games to display Aryan superiority.
Instead, starting in , the Soviets organised an international sports event called Spartakiads. During the interwar period of the s and s, communist and socialist organisations in several countries, including the United States, attempted to counter what they called the "bourgeois" Olympics with the Workers Olympics.
Individual athletes have also used the Olympic stage to promote their own political agenda. The USOC opted for the former. Currently, the government of Iran has taken steps to avoid any competition between its athletes and those from Israel.
An Iranian judoka , Arash Miresmaeili , did not compete in a match against an Israeli during the Summer Olympics.
He was officially cleared of intentionally avoiding the bout, but his receipt of the prize money raised suspicion. In the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes began using drugs to improve their athletic abilities.
For example, in , Thomas Hicks , a gold medallist in the marathon, was given strychnine by his coach. A Danish cyclist, Knud Enemark Jensen , fell from his bicycle and later died.
A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamines. According to British journalist Andrew Jennings , a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts".
The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games. Documents obtained in revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements.
Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the Summer Olympics.
The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall , a Swedish pentathlete at the Summer Olympics , who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use.
His gold medal was later stripped and awarded to the American runner-up Carl Lewis , who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics.
There was a sharp increase in positive drug tests at the Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics. Several medallists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified because of doping offences.
During the Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen now known as the Olympic Standard has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate.
Both urine and blood tests were used to detect banned substances. Several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games; only three athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing.
Prior to the Games athletes tested positive for banned substances and were not allowed to compete. Russia was partially banned from the Summer Olympics and completely banned from the Winter Olympics due to the state-sponsored doping program.
Women were first allowed to compete at the Summer Olympics in Paris, but at the Summer Olympics 35 countries were still only fielding all-male delegations.
In , Bahrain sent two women competitors for the first time: Both athletes were from Dubai's ruling family. By , only three countries had never sent female athletes to the Games: Brunei , Saudi Arabia , and Qatar.
Brunei had taken part in only three celebrations of the Games, sending a single athlete on each occasion, but Saudi Arabia and Qatar had been competing regularly with all-male teams.
In , the International Olympic Committee announced it would "press" these countries to enable and facilitate the participation of women for the Summer Olympics.
Shortly thereafter, the Qatar Olympic Committee announced that it "hoped to send up to four female athletes in shooting and fencing " to the Summer Games in London.
In , Ali Al-Ahmed , director of the Institute for Gulf Affairs , likewise called for Saudi Arabia to be barred from the Games, describing its ban on women athletes as a violation of the International Olympic Committee charter.
While their efforts did result in increasing numbers of women Olympians, the IOC has been reluctant to take a strong position and threaten the discriminating countries with suspension or expulsion.
At the Olympic Games in London , Great Britain , for the first time in Olympic history, every country competing included female athletes.
Qatar made one of its first female Olympians, Bahiya al-Hamad shooting , its flagbearer at the Games,  and runner Maryam Yusuf Jamal of Bahrain became the first Gulf female athlete to win a medal when she won a bronze for her showing in the m race.
The only sport on the Olympic programme that features men and women competing together is the equestrian disciplines. There is no "Women's Eventing", or 'Men's Dressage'.
As of , there were still more medal events for men than women. With the addition of women's boxing to the programme in the Summer Olympics , however, female athletes were able to compete in all the same sports as men.
Three Olympiads had to pass without a celebration of the Games because of war: Both President Bush and Prime Minister Putin were attending the Olympics at that time and spoke together about the conflict at a luncheon hosted by Chinese president Hu Jintao.
In what became a much-publicised event from the Beijing Games, Salukvadze and Paderina embraced on the podium after the ceremony had ended.
Terrorism most directly affected the Olympic Games in When the Summer Games were held in Munich , Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is now known as the Munich massacre.
The terrorists killed two of the athletes soon after they had taken them hostage and killed the other nine during a failed liberation attempt.
A German police officer and five terrorists also perished. Terrorism affected the last two Olympic Games held in the United States. During the Summer Olympics in in Atlanta, Georgia , a bomb was detonated at the Centennial Olympic Park , which killed two and injured others.
The bomb was set by Eric Rudolph , an American domestic terrorist , who is currently serving a life sentence for the bombing.
The opening ceremonies of the Games featured symbols of the day's events. The events of that day have made security at the Olympic Games an increasing concern for Olympic planners.
The Olympic Games have been criticised as upholding and in some cases increasing the colonial policies and practices of some host nations and cities either in the name of the Olympics by associated parties or directly by official Olympic bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, host organising committees and official sponsors.
Such practices have been observed at the Summer Olympics in St. The Olympic Charter requires that an athlete be a national of the country for which they compete.
Dual nationals may compete for either country, as long as three years have passed since the competitor competed for the former country.
If an athlete gains a new or second nationality, then they do not need to wait any designated amount of time before participating for the new or second nation.
The IOC is only concerned with issues of citizenship and nationality after individual nations have granted citizenship to athletes. Athletes will sometimes become citizens of a different nation so they are able to compete in the Olympics.
This is often because they are drawn to sponsorships or training facilities in such places as the United States.
It could also be because an athlete is unable to qualify from within their original country. The athlete may not qualify because there are already qualified athletes in the athlete's home country.
Between and , about fifty athletes emigrated to the United States to compete on the US Olympic team after having previously competed for another nation.
One of the most famous cases of changing nationality for the Olympics was Zola Budd , a South African runner who emigrated to the United Kingdom because there was an apartheid-era ban on the Olympics in South Africa.
Budd was eligible for British citizenship because her grandfather was born in Britain, but British citizens accused the government of expediting the citizenship process for her.
The Kenyan constitution required that one renounce their Kenyan citizenship when they became a citizen of another nation. Lagat competed for Kenya in the Athens Olympics even though he had already become a United States citizen.
According to Kenya, he was no longer a Kenyan citizen, jeopardising his silver medal. Lagat said he started the citizenship process in late and did not expect to become an American citizen until after the Athens games.
The athletes or teams who place first, second, or third in each event receive medals. The winners receive gold medals, which were solid gold until , then made of gilded silver and now gold-plated silver.
Every gold medal however must contain at least six grams of pure gold. In events contested by a single-elimination tournament most notably boxing , third place might not be determined and both semifinal losers receive bronze medals.
At the Olympics only the first two received a medal; silver for first and bronze for second. The current three-medal format was introduced at the Olympics.
At the Summer Olympics in Athens, the gold, silver, and bronze medal winners were also given olive wreaths.
The host city for an Olympic Games is usually chosen seven to eight years ahead of their celebration.
The prospective host city applies to its country's National Olympic Committee; if more than one city from the same country submits a proposal to its NOC, the national committee typically holds an internal selection, since only one city per NOC can be presented to the International Olympic Committee for consideration.
Once the deadline for submission of proposals by the NOCs is reached, the first phase Application begins with the applicant cities asked to complete a questionnaire regarding several key criteria related to the organisation of the Olympic Games.
On the basis of this technical evaluation, the IOC Executive Board selects the applicants that will proceed to the candidature stage.
Once the candidate cities are selected, they must submit to the IOC a bigger and more detailed presentation of their project as part of a candidature file.
Each city is thoroughly analysed by an evaluation commission. This commission will also visit the candidate cities, interviewing local officials and inspecting prospective venue sites, and submit a report on its findings one month prior to the IOC's final decision.
During the interview process the candidate city must also guarantee that it will be able to fund the Games. The IOC members gathered in the Session have the final vote on the host city.
Once elected, the host city bid committee together with the NOC of the respective country signs a Host City Contract with the IOC, officially becoming an Olympic host nation and host city.
By , the Olympic Games will have been hosted by 44 cities in 23 countries, but by cities outside Europe and North America on only eight occasions.
No bids from countries in Africa have succeeded. The British capital London holds the distinction of hosting three Olympic Games, all Summer, more than any other city.
Among host cities, Lake Placid , Innsbruck and St. Moritz have played host to the Winter Olympic Games more than once, each holding that honour twice.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the modern games in general. For the upcoming games in Tokyo, Japan, see Summer Olympics.
For the ancient Greek games, see Ancient Olympic Games. For other uses, see Olympic disambiguation. List of Olympic Games host cities. Cost of the Olympic Games.
Olympic Games scandals and controversies. List of Olympic Games boycotts. Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games. Participation of women in the Olympics.
Colonialism and the Olympic Games. Lists of Olympic medallists and List of multiple Olympic gold medalists. List of participating nations at the Summer Olympic Games.
List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games. List of Olympic medals by host nation. Although the Games report refers to Corey as a "Frenchman wearing the colors of the Chicago Athletic Association",  the IOC attributes his medal in the marathon to the United States instead of France, and in contradiction, the medal in the four mile team race to a mixed team composed of athletes from multiple nations instead of just the United States.
No athletes from modern Great Britain took part. The British Olympic Association was not founded until Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 6 January Classics Technology Center, AbleMedia.
Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 29 April Perseus Project of Tufts University. Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 31 January Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement.
Archived from the original on 23 January Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 4 February The International Olympic Committee.
Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 2 August Louis — Overview". The Olympic Village was within walking distance of all the venues in the Park, enhancing the experience for athletes and officials.
The London Games included a four-year Cultural Olympiad. It reached a climax with the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony on 27 July , starting a day festival of sport and culture across the UK, as the Olympic and Paralympic spirit crosses the world once again.
The Olympic Games are one of the biggest and most complex events in the world, as highlighted by some of these mind-boggling facts and figures:.
On the obverse, the traditional goddess of victory flies into the Panathinaikos stadium bringing victory to the best athlete.
For these Games, the figure of victory is accompanied by the specific inscription: The reverse features an abstract design with the Games emblem at its centre as a metaphor for the modern city.Auf der Homepage sind noch ein Werbebanner mit dem aktuellen Willkommensangebot sowie die beliebtesten Spiele zu sehen. Euro palace casino room is an amazing casino room. Eine todsichere Methode, Blicke auf sich zu lenken, ist eine interessante oder sogar verrückte Frisur. Video Poker Was spielen Sie lieber? Konkreter gesagt, sie zeigen die Realität gerne auf sehr unrealistische Art. Anfrage zu Verifizierungsdokumenten, zur Ein- oder Auszahlung, zur Kontosperrung, zum Passwort, zum Spiel und Einsätzen und natürlich eine generelle Anfrage. Bonus, Freispiele und Slots von Microgaming! Dezember 5, von Thulani M Kommentar verfassen. Es handelt sich hier dank des Willkommensgeschenks um ein freundliches Umfeld, das man erlebt haben muss. Digimedia Limited Live Chat: With English notes, csgoro a copious Greek and English lexicon, etc. Spivey, Nigel Jonathan Pausanias 1 January Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 2 August The boycotting nations quote island england the Eastern Bloc staged their own brünn gp event, the Friendship Gamesin July and August. It was placed on a throne in the temple. Retrieved 11 August The Games in Paris did not have a stadium, but were notable for being the first time women took part in the Games. Terrorism most directly affected the Olympic Games in Horse racing and chariot racing were the most prestigious competitions in the games, due to only the wealthy being able to afford the maintenance Barnyard Bonanza transportation of horses. Little remains of Eratosthenes' Book of ra online schauenbut its academic influence is clearly demonstrated here in the Roman Antiquities by Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
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In een sfeer van Olympische waarden en passend bij de belevings-wereld van jongeren kunnen zij zich via Olympic Moves fysiek, maar ook sociaal verder ontwikkelen.
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Up to , spectators a day entered the Park to enjoy the Games, making it the principal focus of Olympic activity.
The main venues — the Olympic Stadium, Aquatics Centre, Velodrome and BMX Circuit, as well as the hockey, handball and basketball arenas — were easily accessible through a network of footbridges and walkways within the Park.
The Olympic Village was within walking distance of all the venues in the Park, enhancing the experience for athletes and officials. The London Games included a four-year Cultural Olympiad.
It reached a climax with the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony on 27 July , starting a day festival of sport and culture across the UK, as the Olympic and Paralympic spirit crosses the world once again.
The Olympic Games are one of the biggest and most complex events in the world, as highlighted by some of these mind-boggling facts and figures:.
On the obverse, the traditional goddess of victory flies into the Panathinaikos stadium bringing victory to the best athlete.
For these Games, the figure of victory is accompanied by the specific inscription: The reverse features an abstract design with the Games emblem at its centre as a metaphor for the modern city.
Wenlock takes his name from the town of Much Wenlock in Shropshire, which still hosts the traditional Much Wenlock Games.
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